Every year, nearly 15 million babies are born prematurely. [1] Newborns who are born too early, too small, or who become sick in the first few weeks of life are extremely vulnerable to long-term disability or death. Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of death in children under five years of age, accounting for approximately one million deaths per year. It is estimated that three-quarters of these deaths can be prevented with existing, cost-effective interventions [2].

In a world that grapples with unprecedented challenges, from a global pandemic, to climate change, conflicts and instability, and growing wealth disparity, the birth of a healthy child often represents a uniquely joyous and hopeful event.  Every woman, family, and community deserves to experience the best outcomes on the day of birth. According to the World Health Organization’s 2020 Standards for Improving the Quality of Care for Small and Sick Newborns in Health Facilities, “Each year, an estimated 2.5 million newborns die during the first 28 days of life, of whom approximately 80% had a low birth weight and two thirds were born prematurely. A further estimated 1 million small and sick newborns survive with a long-term disability. Globally, up to 30 million newborns require some level of inpatient care each year.”


These numbers are staggering. It is hard to understand and accept the loss of human potential and promise of this magnitude. To progress towards goals set in the SDGs, women and families – particularly those living in underserved or marginalized communities – must be able to access affordable, client-centered care. To reduce poor outcomes for small and sick newborns and prevent unnecessary neonatal deaths, it is equally important that the quality of care along the continuum (ensuring the right maternal and newborn health interventions happen at the right time and location), is improved for both women and newborns.

From our Blog. Antenatal Steroids for Improving Survival of Preterm Babies: Are We There Yet? By Femi Oladapo.

The WHO-led Antenatal Corticosteroid for Improving Outcomes in Preterm Newborns (ACTION) trial resolves an ongoing controversy about the efficacy of antenatal steroids for improving preterm infant survival in low-resource countries. This is the first time a clinical trial has proven that dexamethasone is also effective in low-income settings—a huge sigh of relief that the world would not have to do away with a “good drug” for reducing preterm newborn mortality in resource-limited settings   –more–

Small & Sick Newborn Resource Highlights

AlignMNH has begun compiling resources including recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes, standards for caring for small and sick newborns, as well as the latest evidence and reflections on the use of antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth in different settings. We look forward to growing this page, adding useful resources, links, and implementation experiences.


Based on studies mostly undertaken in high-resource settings, antenatal glucocorticoids (or antenatal corticosteroids – ACS) have long been promoted as a key intervention for reducing preterm infant mortality and morbidity.

However, generalizability of this approach to low-resource settings was called into question in 2015, when the ACT trial (conducted in six lower-resourced countries) showed that efforts to scale ACS could lead to harm. The study findings reopened the debate about the safety and efficacy of ACS in low-resource settings. An important point of debate concerned the minimum standards of care necessary for safe use of ACS, including accurate assessment of gestational age to determine women eligible to receive ACS safely.

Current WHO Recommendations: 

Because of those findings, WHO recommended in 2015 that ACS should be used only under certain circumstances, including accurate assessment of gestational age, imminent preterm birth, the absence of maternal infection, and adequate care for childbirth and preterm newborns. Adequate care of preterm newborns includes resuscitation, thermal care, feeding support, infection treatment, and safe oxygen use.

Recent results about ACS use in low resource settings:

The WHO ACTION-I (Antenatal Corticosteroids for Improving Outcomes in Preterm Newborns) trial was a randomized trial to assess the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone in women in hospitals in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth. However, it’s important to note that the study invested resources in careful selection of appropriate clients and settings for the intervention, as well as a range of interventions, capacity building, and other factors to support a higher level of care for mothers and newborns at study sites.

Cochrane Review Analysis (of 27 randomized trials including 11,272 women) supports the continued use of a single course of antenatal corticosteroids to accelerate fetal lung maturation in women at risk of preterm birth reduces the risk of serious respiratory illness and death in neonates in low and middle income countries. More detailed data are needed for certain high risk groups (e.g. Multiple pregnancies and pregnant women with diabetes or hypertension).

Key Takeaways: Use of antenatal corticosteroid use in women with threatened premature birth, between 26 weeks gestation and <34 weeks gestation: 


• Reduced risk of early neonatal death
• Reduced risk of severe respiratory distress at 24 hours
• No evidence of maternal or newborn harms, including infection
• No effect on stillbirth
• Benefits observed even if full dosing was not able to be accomplished



WHO 2015 recommendation on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes  WHO (2015)

Issued by WHO in 2015, this document offers policy makers and program managers guidance for developing job aids and tools in pre or in-service training to strengthen delivery of MNH care related to preterm birth.

WHO Standards for Improving Quality of Care for Small and Sick Newborns  WHO (2020)

Issued by WHO in 2020, these standards for the care of small and sick newborns in health facilities define, standardize and mainstream inpatient care of small and sick newborns, building on essential newborn care and ensuring consistency with the WHO quality of care framework. A resource for policy-makers, health care professionals, health service planners, program managers, regulators, professional bodies and technical partners.

Every Newborn Action Plan

The Every Newborn Action Plan presents evidence-based solutions to prevent newborn deaths and stillbirths. It sets out a clear path to 2020 with specific global and national milestones. The plan was based on evidence presented in The Lancet Every Newborn series, and developed within the Every Woman Every Child framework.  View the plan.

Every Newborn Progress Reports

Every Newborn Action Plan Progress reports are published on a regular basis.

  • ENAP Results Framework  The Every Newborn 2018 annual report, Reaching Every Newborn National 2020 Milestones, provides an up-to-date account of country progress reported by the 75 countries and territories who use the Every Newborn Tracking Tool. The report provides an in-depth look progress towards the eight Every Newborn Milestones identifying common areas of progress and challenges.
  • ENAP Progress Report The Every Newborn 2019 annual report provides an updated on progress towards 2020 goals and milestones

ENAP Service Delivery and Readiness Targets

ENAP service delivery and readiness targets were recently updated and published in a report ‘Ending Preventable newborn Deaths and Stillbirths by 2030: Coverage targets 2020-2025’.  The ENAP Service coverage targets include national and subnational targets for use by program managers.




Antenatal Glucocorticoids in Low-Resource Settings — Who, When, and Where?  NEJM (2020) 

The authors of this 2020 commentary argue that, “The WHO ACTION-I trial makes clear that there are many areas in low- and middle-income countries where antenatal glucocorticoids can be prescribed safely and effectively. Facilities that meet the clinical standards of the trial sites (or to which resources could be provided to meet these standards) should use them.”

New WHO recommendations to improve the outcomes of preterm birth  The Lancet (2015)
The authors comment on WHO’s 2015 recommendations on interventions to improve preterm newborn outcomes

Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials   BMJ Global Health (2017)

This 2015 commentary briefly present an appraisal of the evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO’s recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence.