This document is an output of a WHO cross-programme initiative aiming to improve the prevention, diagnosis and management of anaemia and thereby accelerate reduction in its prevalence. It comes at an important time, midway through the era of the Sustainable Development Goals, when progress in reducing anaemia has stagnated. This framework is based on the core principles of primary health care: meeting people’s health needs through comprehensive promotive, protective, curative, and rehabilitative care along the life course; systematically addressing the broader determinants of health; and empowering individuals, families, and communities to optimize their health.


  • This framework proposes strategic, effective and implementable actions which, by leading to the reduction of anaemia, will improve health and accelerate progress toward national and global targets.
  • The framework brings to light the persistent issue of anaemia and suggests essential action areas and interventions to address it, based on country-specific data and available delivery platforms.
  • It provides information to support discussion among political and health leaders, helping to create a shared understanding and build commitment among local and national leaders for strengthening the multisectoral response to reducing anaemia.
  • This work leverages global guidelines and consolidates the evidence for decision-makers, providing a menu of strategies that countries can tailor to their specific contexts to advocate for investment in reducing anaemia. Interventions will need to be prioritized according to the most significant local contributors to anaemia, and the associated relative cost-effectiveness or value for money of these interventions. These considerations will link with other criteria such as equity, as prioritized by member states, and affordability.

How to Use

The framework will support political leaders, health leaders and programme managers who make decisions about planning, prioritization, coordination, human resource allocation, fund distribution, and communication. It may also be helpful to government departments and ministries outside of the formal health system, in particular those dealing with education, food and agriculture, environment including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), labour, trade and industry, social protection, and finance. Lastly, it can serve to inform and support decisions made by organizations, foundations and individuals who support countries and/or fund implementation research to reduce malnutrition, malaria, other parasitic infections, and chronic diseases.